Information Technology Industry TimeLine

-1944 1945-1963 1964-1974 1975-1994 1995-

The period 1965-1975 was the "golden age" of the mainframe computer, dominated by IBM and its compatible series of machines. Almost all large and medium-sized companies in the industrial world became equipped. Software houses were created to try to close the "application gap" and helped companies and administrations into real-time applications. 
It is surprising that most computer time-lines are skipping all that period going directly from the computers pioneers to the microprocessor invention. In fact, the subsequent history, specially that of operating systems, was based upon the work done in that period.

The American computer industry became mature. Many entrants coming from the electronics area (GE, RCA...) folded back their earlier commitments into mergers. After 1969-1970, the US Department of Defense cuts its direct subsidies for application systems and became only interested by research on integrated electronics. The last important involvement by DoD into general purpose IT was Internet that was planned in the late 1960s, even if many people have discovered it only 25 years later.

Europe, Japan, Soviet Union attempted to enter the computer field, often by governments backed plans. 
Japan succeeded to develop an industry backed by diversified keiretsu (large non-specialized companies) and to close the gap with Americans by subsidizing technology (cf. LSI MITI plan). MITI asks the private domestic companies to make "cooperation" alliances with foreign large companies and to acquire know-how in system design, software, and experience of using computers.
United Kingdom was not able to maintain their 1950s effort and started early a concentration in the industry and to loose progressively the market share they had at home and in the Commonwealth.
Germany was adopting  a strategy closer to Japan's, Siemens relying much in RCA alliance, while investing in technology. Competitors, while relatively small,and the weight of IBM Deutschland limited the ambitions of Siemens.
France and Soviet Union try to develop, almost from scratch, a government sponsored industry. This industry competes with the strong weight of IBM France and with that of the shareholders of Bull (GE and later Honeywell).  France private interests were obliged to fulfill their commitment in relying on alliances (initially with SDS, later with Siemens) and eventually retreat from the computer field.
Soviet Union had a plan to mimic the IBM S/360 products line, but it seems that many researchers and the military establishment were going their own way, a way similar to the USA of the 1950s.

Even if mainframes were climaxing in that period, minicomputers born for process control applications started to invade the general purpose market, essentially by passing to the customer the decreased cost of the hardware. The Grosch's law started to be challenged and many planned distributed processing. In the early 1970s the future was already written in the wall: VLSI would mean computer in a chip on the next decade.




other USA


rest of the world

Feb 1964 foundation of IBM Cambridge Scientific Center by Norm Rasmussen at 545 Tech Square      
Feb 1964 termination of 1401S project in favor of 360      
2 Mar 1964   General Electric establishes the first private dial network     
Mar 1964   Paul Baran of RAND Corporation published the paper "On Distributed Communications Networks," about secure packet-switching networks    
1964   introduction of RCA 3301 RCA 3301 announced by Bull as Gamma 40 (not delivered)  
1964   foundation of Scientific Data Systems (SDS) by Max Palewsky    
Apr 1964 introduction of IBM S/360 line of computers, built in SLT technology   S/360 micro-modules produced at Corbeil-Essonnes, France IBM S/360 model 40 is developed at IBM UK
Apr 1964       introduction of AEG Telefunken TR-4
1964   Informatics acquires Advanced Information Systems (AIS) from Hughes Dynamics that brings file management systems under John A. Postley    
1964   JOSS time-sharing system enters operation on Johnniac at Rand Corporation    
1964       NEC establishes its Fuchu plant
1 May 1964   first operation of BASIC at Dartmouth College  on GE-225 and DN-30    
1964   Graphic tablet developed by M.R. Davis and T.D. Ellis at Rand Corporation    
12 May 1964     resignation of Joseph Callies, CEO of CMB. Approval of a merger with General Electric  
1964   introduction of CDC 6600 , designed by Seymour Cray and James E Thornton in Chippewa Falls MN    
1964       development of Olivetti 4001, the future GE-115
1964   introduction of NCR 315 business computer    
1964     creation of SESA by Jacques Stern and Jacques Arnould  
1964       General Electric buys the Olivetti computers forming GEISI.
1964   USAF signs ILLIAC-IV contract with University of Illinois, led by Daniel Slotnick with Texas Instruments and Burroughs as subcontractors    
1964       introduction of Sharp Compet CS-10 electronic calculator 
1964   introduction of IDS-I by GE's Charlie Bachman on GE-225    
1964       introduction of Simula language
1964   Introduction by CCC Computer Control Corp of DDP-116 minicomputer designed by Gardner Hendrie (ex-Foxboro).    
1964 introduction of MT/ST magnetic tape : selectric typewriter keytape system      
Jun 1964   announcement of GE-600 by General Electric    
Jun 1964   first delivery of SDS-930    
24 Jul 1964     General Electric acquires 51% of Compagnie des Machines-Bull renamed Bull-General-Electric  
1964 operation of IBM American Airlines SABRE reservation system using IBM 7090, project initiated in mid-1954      
1964       English Electric absorbs Marconi computer interests forming EELM 
1964   introduction of Sperry Rand Univac 1108    
1964   acquisition by Schlumberger of ASI (ex-General Mills computers)    
1964   introduction of Burroughs B-5500    
Aug 1964   introduction of Burroughs B5500    
Aug 1964   selection of GE by MIT as hardware supplier for project MAC    
Sep 1964   Inauguration of Dartmouth Time-Sharing System on GE-265, developed by John Kemeny and Tom Kurz, featuring the first BASIC language processor    
17 Sep 1964   introduction of Wang LOKI desktop scientific calculator    
29 Sep 1964       introduction of ICT 1900 range
Oct 1964       first operation of Ferranti Atlas at Harwell, British AEC
Oct 1964   introduction of DEC PDP-6 36_bits computer    
1964       production of Ural-11, 14 and 16 computers under Rameev manufactured at Penza
1964       Bruno Visentini named chairman of Olivetti replacing Adriano Olivetti
1964   Berkeley University (Peter Deutsch, Butler Lampson) modify SDS-930 for project Genie
it will be sold as SDS-940 by Scientific Data System
Nov 1964     introduction of Bull-General Electric Gamma M40 scientific and industrial 24-bits binary computer delivered in Oct 1965  
Nov 1964   Bell Labs join MIT and GE in MULTICS project.    
1964     demonstration of LSA time-sharing on BGE M-40  
Nov 1964 introduction of IBM 1800 process control computer      
Nov 1964 introduction of IBM 360 mod 20 small business computer      
Nov 1964 introduction of IBM 360/92 large scale scientific computer, developed as Project X and delivered as 360/91 and 360/95      
Nov 1964     creation of CITEC between CSF, CGE and Intertechnique. CITEC is the holding company of CAE  
1964   release of Tops-10 for DEC 36-bits PDP-6    
Dec 1964     CAE introduces 90/10, 90/40 and 90/80 under SDS Scientific licenses brought by CGE's subsidiary CIT  
Dec 1964   introduction of RCA Spectra 70 based on monolithic circuits   English Electric decides to base its new line on RCA design and to terminate KLX project.
Dec 1964   first delivery of SDS-9300    
Dec 1964   introduction of DEC PDP-7 18-bits minicomputer    
Jan 1965 reorganization in IBM SMD Systems Manufacturing Division and SDD Systems development Division. Bob Evans transferred at Federal Systems Division      
Jan 1965       delivery of first ICT 1905 to Northampton College, London
1965       NEC announces its NEAC- Series 2200 based on Honeywell license
1965   foundation of Keane, Inc project management software house at Hingham, MA, by John F. Keane    
1965       introduction of Wanderer Logatronic developed by Nixdorf, aka Nixdorf 820 small computer.
Apr 1965 first shipment of IBM 360/40      
Apr 1965   introduction of Digital PDP-8 designed by Ed de Castro    
Apr 1965 introduction of IBM 2314 disc subsystem      
1965       Development of DJS-7 by Beijing Telecom
1965   introduction of CDC-6400 a slower version of 6600    
1965       introduction of transistor-based calculator Model 001 by Casio
1965       production of M-220 in Kazan
1965   release of Autoflow program by ADR    
1965       creation of Simula, an early object language by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-John Dahl in Norway.
1965   invention of Eliza by Joe Weizenbaum at MIT    
1965       introduction of Metaconta 10C by ITT produced by Bell in Belgium
22 Apr 1965 introduction of IBM 360 mod 65 and 75      
23 Apr 1965       first soviet communications satellite Molniya 1
1965       Service & Games, an importer of arcade devices is renamed Sega Enterprises
1965   introduction of Wang 300 electronic calculator    
1965   introduction of Honeywell 8200    
Jun 1965 first shipment of IBM 360/30 from Endicott      
Jun 1965 first shipment of IBM 2311 disc to Allstate Insurance Company      
24 Jun 1965     inauguration of CAE's Les Clayes sous Bois plant  
Jul 1965       ICT and English Electric proposes to France's CITEC a Large Computer project
1965   Invention of Fast Fourier Transform by John Tukey from Princeton Univ    
Aug 1965 introduction of IBM 360 mod 67 to run under TSS operating system      
Aug 1965 first shipment of IBM 360/50      
1965     termination of SEA CAB1500 project  
1965   FCC approves the application for long range communications made by MCI Microwave Communications, Inc using microwave link between StLouis and Chicago    
Sep 1965 shipment of IBM 2321 MARS magnetic card device to Allstate      
Sep 1965       introduction of English Electric System 4 based on RCA Spectra
1965   Roger Wheeler elected chairman of Telex with Stephen Jatras as executive vp, president in 1966    
Sep 1965       Fujitsu introduces FACOM 230-10/20/50 general-purpose computers and FACOM 270-10/20/30 scientific computers
Oct 1965   interconnection of MIT Lincoln Labs TX-2 and AN/FSQ-32 at Santa Monica SDC    
Nov 1965   MULTICS is described at Fall Joint Computer Conference    
Nov 1965 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 65 to Lincoln Lab      
1965 release of 7070 emulator on IBM S/360      
1965 introduction of DOS on IBM 360      
Dec 1965 fist delivery of IBM 1130 small scientific computer      
1965       development of Olivetti Programma 101 desk computer by Pier Giorgio Peroto
Dec 1965   delivery of first Univac 1108 to Lockheed Sunnyvale    
Jan 1966 first shipment of IBM 360/75 to NASA      
Mar 1966   Introduction of Burroughs B2500 and B3500    
Mar 1966 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 20      
1966       SITA computer controlled message switching system in Frankfurt, Germany 
Mar 1966       first shipment of IBM 360 mod 20 from IBM Germany
1966   introduction of SDS Sigma 7 computer    
1966   introduction of HP 2115 by Hewlett-Packard    
1966     creation of Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brand under Paul Richard  
1966   foundation of Signetics corporation, semiconductors firm    
1966     MAT01 computer designed at University of Grenoble, that will the base for minicomputer produced at MORS and Télémécanique (Solar)  
Apr 1966   first delivery of SDS-940    
Apr 1966 first delivery of IBM 1800 process control computer derived from 1130      
1966     acquisition of Société Alsacienne de Constructions Atomiques, de Télécommunications et d'Electronique (Alcatel) by CGE.  
Jun 1966 first shipment of IBM 360/67      
16 Jul 1966     creation in France of Plan Calcul under a Délégation à l'Informatique by the Government (september 1966)  
Aug 1966   introduction of DEC PDP-9 18-bits minicomputer    
Sep 1966 delivery of IBM 360 mod 44      
1966       introduction of BESM-6 scientific computer designed by V.A. Sokolov  under Lebedev at ITMVT
1966   introduction by Texas Instruments of TTL family 54 and 74    
1966   introduction of Teradyne J239 IC tester    
1966       Texas Instruments begins semiconductor production in Freising, Germany
1966   Introduction of Burroughs B6500
B6500 will be only delivered in 1969
Oct 1966     decision to terminate the GE-140 in Bull-General Electric  
1966 creation of 1 transistor/bit experimental memory cell at Research by Robert Dennard (patented in 1968)      
1966   IPO of Informatics    
Oct 1966     foundation of SPERAC a Plan Calcul company by merge of computer peripheral activities of Thomson and Compagnie des Compteurs  
1966   introduction of Burroughs B-8500 large scale computer    
1966   creation of WEYCOS transaction system by Russ Mc Gee and Charlie Bachmann for Weyerhauser on GE-635    
1966   Acquisition of Computer Controls Corporation by Honeywell    
1966   Bell Labs announce magnetic bubble technology developed by A.H. Bobeck
that never played a role in computer industry outside aerospace
6 Dec 1966     incorporation of CII Compagnie Industrielle pour l'Informatique grouping SEA, SETI  and CITEC, FH Raymond quits CII.  
1966     introduction of CII 10070,  a French version of SDS Sigma 7  
1966   Telex introduces an IBM compatible tape drive    
3 Jan 1967     creation of IRIA Institut de Recharche en Informatique et Automatisme French research center   
Jan 1967 delivery of GE-645 to MIT for Project MAC
Jan 1967 operation of CP-40 operating system and CMS at Cambridge Scientific Center on  a modified IBM 360/40      
13 Apr 1967     signature of convention between CII and the French government  
1967 first operation of CP-67 on IBM 360/67      
1967   Charlie Spock (ex-Fairchild) is named CEO of National Semiconductors    
1967     first shipment of GE-55 a small business computer  
1967   final version of ASCII-1967 encoding adopted internationally by ISO    
1967   introduction of Burroughs B-3200    
May 1967 release of MTS to Michigan University campus on 360/67      
May 1967       introduction of English Electric System 4/50 and 4/30
May 1967   foundation of K & K Associates at Palo Alto CA, by David Katch and Kenneth W. Kolence    
24 Jun 1967       Merge of English Electric Leo Marconi and Elliott-Automation forming EEC English Electric Computers
Jun 1967       introduction of AEG Telefunken TR-440
1967   H.I. Romnes replaces Frederick Kappel as AT&T CEO    
Sep 1967   Introduction of DEC PDP-10    
Sep 1967   beginning of operation of MULTICS running on GE-645 at MIT    
Sep 1967   introduction of HP 2000    
1967   release of Snobol 4    
1967   introduction of first MOS chip at Fairchild    
1 Oct 1967     creation of Sogeti ,( SOciété de Gestion des Enterprises et de Traitement de l’Information) a software company by Serge Kampf at Grenoble  
1967   Donald Knuth mentions the need to separate data and programs in algorithms    
Oct 1967   publication of ArpaNet plans    
Oct 1967   K&K Associates renamed Boole and Babbage, Inc     
1967   development of Informatics Mk IV by John Postley    
Nov 1967   introduction of Memorex Model 630 a 2311 compatible disk designed by ex-IBMer, featuring voice-coil actuator    
1967 delivery of IBM 360/91 supercomputer      
Dec 1967   US Navy selects Univac for AN/UYK-7 a NTDS successor derived from 1108 (but 32-bits)    
1967       AEI is acquired by GEC General Electric Company (UK) the merger also involved Metropolitan-Vickers, BTH, Edison Swan, Siemens Bros., Hotpoint and W.T. Henley.
Dec 1967 Resignation of the "dirty dozen" engineers from San Jose storage products group foundation of ISS Information Storage Systems, manufacturing products integrated and sold by Telex    
Jan 1968 introduction of IBM 360 mod 25, shipped in October 1968      
Jan 1968 introduction of IBM 360 mod 85, featuring cache      
1968       introduction of EP-1 printer by Seiko
1968 delivery of IBM 360/95 supercomputer with thin film memory      
1968   foundation of Cincom by Thomas Nies    
Feb 1968 IBM tests a 8in floppy disc code-named Minnow 23FD (initially introduced in 1971 to store diagnostics in IBM 3330)      
1968       introduction of ICT 40 punched-card machines featuring small cards
1968   IPO of EDS raising $378M    
Mar 1968     introduction of CII 10010 minicomputer  
1968   introduction of Memorex 2314 compatible disk    
1968   introduction of GE Datanet-355 a 18-bits front-end processor    
1968     development of a 16-bits memory chip by CSF-Cosem at Corbeville lab  
1968   first release of EXEC 8 on Univac 1108    
1968     absorption of CSF by Thomson-Brandt, creating Thomson-CSF
Creation of SESCOSEM to manufacture components, merging Thomson's SESCO and CSF's Cosem
1968       Edsgar Dijkstra calls  the "GOTO as harmful" and advocates structured programming
1968   foundation of Cincom Systems Inc by Thomas M. Nies at Cincinnati    
1968   foundation of On-Line Software International by Jack Berdy    
1968   creation of Gemini Computer Systems by John Diebold    
Apr 1968       Nixdorf's LFI  buys Wanderer Werke and transfers headquarters from Köln to Paderhorn
Apr 1968 IBM decommits TSS/360      
May 1968   Douglas C. Engelbart, of the Stanford Research Institute, demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and windows At SJCC  in San Francisco    
May 1968 release of version 1 of CP-67/CMS      
1968   DEC terminates the PDP-10 program    
May 1968 reorientation of IBM Advanced Computer System initiated in Research in 1961 as project Y and being designed at San Jose as ACS-360 under Gene Amdahl
project will be terminated in May 1969
1968     foundation of Sopra in Grenoble by François Odin et Pierre Pasquier  
1968 delivery of  IBM 2938 Array Processor to Western Geophysical      
1968       release of specifications of Algol 68
1968   FCC in Caterphone decision authorizes foreign devices attachments to Bell network    
1968       LFI is renamed Nixdorf Computer AG
1968     creation of IBM Centre Scientifique de Grenoble  
1968   invention of REDUCE an algebraic formula language by A.C. Hearne at Rand Corporation    
1968   Foundation of Data General by Ed de Castro ex-DEC    
1968   release of specs of Cobol-68 by Codasyl    
1968   foundation of Culliname at Boston MA by John J. Cullinane    
1968       introduction of Sony's Trinitron TV set
4 Jun 1968 IBM Research (Dr Robert Dennard) gets a patent for DRAM      
9 Jul 1968       merge between ICT and English Electric Computers forming ICL .
18 Jul 1968   incorporation of NM Electronics by Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, name changed into Intel    
1968 ACS Advanced Computer System, a superscalar project designed at San Jose by John Cocke, evolved in ACS-360 par gene Amdahl, terminated in 1968      
1968       first delivery of English Electric large System 4/70
1968   introduction of HP 9100 desktop calculator    
Jul 1968     Maurice Allègre is promoted délégué à l'informatique, replacing Robert Galley  
Jul 1968   FCC authorizes non-Bell equipments connection  to telephone lines    
Aug 1968   introduction of DEC PDP-8I with integrated circuits    
1968   foundation of Evans & Sutherland by David Evans and Ivan Sutherland (from MIT) at University of Utah    
1968   introduction of Univac 9400    
1968       creation of Pascal by Nikolaus Wirth
1968   introduction of Hewlett-Packard HP-9100 desk calculator     
1968   Signal Oil & Gas merge with Garrett Corporation a small aircraft engine manufacturer and is renamed Signal Companies    
6 Sep1968       GEC acquires the rest of English Electric assets: Elliott Bros., The Marconi Company, Ruston and Hornsby, Stephenson, Hawthorn & Vulcan Foundry, Willans and Robinson and Dick Kerr.
19 Sep 1968     introduction of CII  Iris 50, code named P1  
14 Oct 1968     cross-license agreement renewed between CII and SDS for five years  
1968       CCITT introduces Group 1 fac-simile standard
1968   introduction of Wang 700 desktop calculator    
Nov 1968   introduction of RCA Spectra 70/46    
1968   creation of LOGO language by Seymour Papert and Wally Fuerzeigat MIT/BBN    
Dec 1968       Romania's Electronum acquires manufacturing rights for CII Iris50 named Felix 256 computer
Dec 1968 IBM introduces unbundling of software and services      
15 Jan 1969   AT&T accepts to sell its teletypewriter TWX exchange service to Western Union    
1969     launch by PTT of a plan for extending telephone service in France  
1969       introduction of Regnecentralen RC4000 computer in Denmark, 
the operating system will be Brinch Hansen's Monitor
17 Jan 1969 US DoJ (attorney general Ramsey Clark) charges IBM of monopolizing the computer industry      
Jan 1969   introduction of Data General Nova 1200, designed by Ron Gruner    
1969   General Electric introduces GECOS III on its GE-600 product line.    
1969   Singer Business Machines introduces MDTS point of sales terminal    
1969   beginning of operations of MCI Microwave Communications International    
1969       foundation  of Logica software house
1969   introduction of CDC 7600    
1969   foundation of McCormack & Dodge, Inc. by Jim McCormack and Frank Dodge
Apr 1969   Bell Labs drops out from MULTICS project
1969   agreement by Telex to market discs designed by ISS Telex 5311 and Telex 5314    
Jun 1969 introduction of IBM System/3 model 10, introducing 96 columns card multifunction device      
2 Jun 1969     introduction of CII Iris 35M military computer code named P0M  
9 Jun 1969     Michel Barré named general manager of CII  
Jun 1969 delivery of Version 2 of CP/CMS      
Jun 1969     agreement between Thomson and Cie Générale d'Electricité about telecommunications and computer industry  
30 Jun 1969 announcement of unbundling of software by IBM      
1969       development of CAFS at ICL 
1969   introduction of General Electric Terminet 300 printer terminal    
1969     creation of Steria by Jean Carteron  
1969   creation of UNIX operating system at Bell Labs    
1969   introduction of Smalltalk system by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC    
1969   introduction of Texas Instruments Silent 700 terminal using thermal printing    
1 May 1969   foundation of AMD Advanced Micro Devices by Jerry Sanders (ex-Fairchild)    
1969   introduction of Singer MTDS point of sales terminal    
1969   Xerox buys SDS forming XDS Xerox Data Systems    
1969   creation of Flextronics by Joe McKenzie, as board equipping manufacturing company    
1969   William Regitz of Honeywell looks for partners in the development of a 3 transistor/cell memory, (leading to Intel 1103)    
Jul 1969   first flight to Moon of Apollo XI  with Raytheon Apollo Guidance Computer    
Summer 1969   General Electric gathers the "Shangri-La" APL product definition seminar at Hollywood-by-the-Sea FL    
Aug 1969 introduction of IBM 360 mod 195      
Aug 1969 resignation of Alan Shugart from IBM Alan Shugart joins Memorex    
1969     establishment of SITA  X.25 communications network  
1969   Intel introduces 512Kbit chip 1102 PMOS memory chip, designed by Joel Karper, working with William Regitz of Honeywell    
1 Sep 1969   first ARPANet node installed at UCLA by BBN, on Honeywell 516 IMP with UCLA (XDS Sigma7), SRI (XDS940 under Genie), UCSB (IBM 360/75 under MVT) and Utah University (PDP-10 under Tenex) hosts    
Sep 1969   installation of AMD at Sunnyvale    
1969   introduction of RS-232-C standard    
25 Sep 1969     introduction of CII Iris-80 derived from 10070  
Oct 1969 MULTICS is put in public operation at MIT
1969   first volume of Donald Knuth's the Art of Computer programming    
Nov 1969   introduction of Intel MCS-4 a chip set based on 4004 microprocessor.
4004 was 2300 transistor s
Nov 1969   introduction by AMD of first IC Am-9300 '-bits MSI shift register    
Dec 1969   introduction of GE-655    
Dec 1969 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 85      
1 Jan 1970 IBM unbundling becomes effective in the US      
Jan 1970 introduction of IBM 2305 Fixed Head Storage facility, code-named Zeus      
1970   adoption of Mansfield Amendment in Defense Authorization Act that prohibits military funding for any research that did not have a "direct or apparent relationship to a specific military function or operations."    
13 Feb 1970     first shipment of CII Iris 50  
1970   foundation of Floating Point Systems by C N Winningstad (ex-Tektronix ?) to produce scientific co-processors on minicomputers    
Apr 1970   introduction of Digital PDP11/20 16-bits minicomputer    
1970     prototype of E10 switching system developed by CIT at Lannion  
Apr 1970   introduction of Singer System 10 minicomputer    
May 1970   Acquisition of General Electric computer business by Honeywell Bull-General Electric also acquired by Honeywell, merges formally into Honeywell-Bull 21 sep 1970  
Jun 1970 introduction of IBM 3330 disc storage code-named Merlin (also 23XX and 2314B) storing 100<MB per spindle featuring voice-coil actuator and track-following servo      
Jun 1970   Foundation of Xerox Palo Alto research center (PARC)    
Jun 1970 introduction of IBM S/370 155 (code-named Hawk) and 165 (Eagle), with MST technology, in S/360 architecture      
1970   invention of MACSYMA algebraic language by J Moses et al. at MIT    
26 Jun 1970   FCC regulates cable-TV industry barring access of TV networks to CATV    
1970   delivery of Univac AN/UYK-7 for US Navy Aegis NTDS successor    
Jul 1970   installation of Aloha CDMA network at Hawaii. Aloha was designed by Norman Abramson,    
1970       Acquisition by NEC of Toshiba main frame business
1970     creation of GFI  
1970     Ambroise Roux named CEO of CGE  
1970     integration of SPERAC in CII  
1970   incorporation of Modcomp Modular Computer Systems, Inc. founded in Fort Lauderdale FL    
1970   introduction of Friden System 10 small computer    
1970   termination of Burroughs B-8500 project, only 2 prototypes have been built    
1970   release of MUMPS software system for PDP-15    
1970   foundation of Western Digital as a specialized semiconductor manufacturer    
1970     creation of GSI Générale de Services Informatiques  
1970 publication of "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks" by Edgar F Codd      
Sep 1970 introduction of S/370 145      
Sep 1970 introduction of IBM 2319 storage facility, a reduced capacity cheaper version of 2314 (3 drives and integrated controller)      
30 Sep 1970     introduction of CII Iris 35M for control of French nuclear submarines  
1970   Cincom releases TOTAL data base    
Sep 1970 installation of IBM Watson Lab from Columbia University to Yorktown Heights      
1970 introduction of IBM System 7 process control computer      
1970   use of NCP Network Control Protocol by Arpanet 
it will be replaced by TCP/IP in 1982
1970   introduction of Honeywell H-6000 based on General Electric GE-655    
Oct 1970   Foundation of Amdahl corporation at Sunnyvale CA    
Oct 1970   introduction of Intel 1103 1K-bit memory chip announcement of Intel 4001 2Kbits memory chip    
Oct 1970   introduction of Burroughs B-5700 and B-6700    
Dec 1970 cut in discs lease price to face plug-compatible manufacturers competition      
Nov 1970   introduction of Univac 1110 large computer    
13 Jan 1971     introduction of  GE-58 small computer by Honeywell
to be delivered in Sep 1971
Jan 1971 first shipment of IBM 370/155      
1971   by the  Specialized Common Carrier decision FCC deregulates private-line communications    
Feb 1971   introduction of Honeywell 6000 extensions EIS extended instruction set     
Mar 1971 introduction of S/370-135      
Mar 1971   shipment of Intel 4004 chip to Busicom    
25 Mar 1971     introduction of CII Iris 45 an entry model for Iris 50  
Apr 1971 introduction of IBM 360 mod 22 shipped in June 1971, a derivative of 360/30      
Apr 1971 first shipment of IBM 370/165      
Apr 1971       introduction of ICL 1900-S
May 1971 IBM announces decommitment of TSS on 360/67      
1971       NEC delivers to NTT its first electronic switching system
1971   formation of Multinational Data SA with Control Data...

1971   release of RSTS-11 for PDP-11    
1971       foundation of Software AG by John Maguire
1971   introduction of Wang 1200 word processing workstation    
1971   introduction of GTE-Sylvania Digicom    
1971   acquisition of ISS by Itel, a reseller of Telex subsystems. ISS was sold later to Univac and resold to Control Data in 1985    
1971   First implementation Forth by astronomer Moore on Honeywell H-316 at Kitt Peak AZ    
10 May 1971     introduction of CII Mitra 15 (gamme Q)  
1971   introduction of Intel 1701 256-bits EPROM    
Jun 1971 introduction of S/370 195      
Jun 1971 first shipment of IBM 370/145      
29 Jun 1971 Thomas J Watson Jr. steps down letting . Vincent Learson as CEO and Frank T. Carry as President.      
1971       creation of PASCAL programming language by Niklaus Wirth
1971   MSA declares bankruptcy and is acquired by John P. Imlay    
1971   introduction of 3M QIC quarter of inch tape cartridge    
2 Aug 1971     Second Plan Calcul convention between CII and the French government  
1971   delivery to USAF Rome ADC of Control Data Cyber Plus radar image processor    
1971       production of ES-1020 designed by Prjiyakovsky at Minsk
1971   death of R Sarnoff of RCA at 80    
Aug 1971 introduction of IBM 3270 display terminal      
1971 introduction of IBM 3671 Brokerage Control Unit  with 33FD diskette code-named Igar      
1971   Texas instruments delivers Advanced Scientific Computer (for seismic studies)    
1971   introduction of NCR Century 50    
1971       first operation of ES-1030 designed by M Smiryan at Erevan, manufactured at Minsk
Sep 1971 decision of John Opel to start the Future Systems product line. Design was headed by George Radin from Research Division      
1971       introduction of Sony's professional video recorder 3/4 in U-Matic
20 Sep 1971     introduction of CII Iris 60  
1971   foundation of Atari by Nolan Bushnell    
17 Sep 1971   RCA announces its abandon of computers industry
Univac acquires the US assets of RCA
  Siemens and ICL lose their RCA support
Oct 1971   DoD attributes the WWMCCS contract to Honeywell 6000    
15 Nov 1971   introduction of Intel 4004 single chip processor with 2300 transistors, designed by Ted Hoff and Frederico Faggin    
10 Nov 1971     first shipment of CII Iris 80  
Nov 1971   introduction of Honeywell series 2000    
21 Jan 1972 Telex suit against anti-trust practices of IBM on discs.
Telex won in Sep 1973 but its award was limited in appeal, due to trade secrets violations
28 Jan 1972     agreement between CII and Siemens for a consortium, later named Unidata  
Feb 1972 operation of CP/CMS on a S/370 to be announced as VM/370      
1 Apr 1972       creation of SAP (for "Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung" by Hasso Plattner, Dietmar Hopp, Klaus Tschira et Hans-Werner Hector (ex-IBM) at Mannheim
Apr 1972   Intel introduces 200KHz 8008 microprocessor, with 3500 transistors in 10µm technology, for CTC (Datapoint)    
Apr 1972 first shipment of IBM 370/135      
1972     creation of R2E by André Truong Trong Thi et François Gernelle  
1972   foundation of Palyn Associates, by Max Paley and Michael Flynn    
1972   foundation of Cray Research Inc by Seymour Cray (ex-Control Data)    
1972     foundation of CISI,  a software subsidiary of French AEC  by Albert Amouyal  
1972   H. I. Romnes retires from AT&T and is replaced by John D. deButts    
1972   Alan Kay at Xerox PARC proposed  a DataBook    
1972       Fujitsu acquires shares of Amdahl and starts cooperation.
1972     creation of CCETT at Rennes, in Brittany  
1972   Honeywell closes its Framingham lab, the home of Computer Control Corporation    
1972   ARPA renamed DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency    
1972       Geoff Cross (ex-Univac) becomes managing director of ICL
May 1972     Jean-Pierre Brulé named CEO of Honeywell-Bull  
May 1972   introduction of H-700 minicomputer by Honeywell    
1972   introduction of Burroughs B-1700    
1972     installation of a 645 Multics at Honeywell-Bull for software development  
1972   foundation of Prime Computer by Bill Poduska at Natick MA    
1972       merge of Toshiba main frame computer business into NEC-TIS
1972   invention of the C language by Ken Thomson and Dennis Ritchie, of Bell Laboratories    
1972       foundation of Polygram subsidiary of Philips
1972   introduction of Wang 2200 minicomputers    
2 Aug 1972 announcement of virtual storage on IBM S/370 systems, featuring VM/370, DOS/VS, OS/VS1 and OS/VS2       
Aug 1972 introduction of IBM System/370 model 158 and 168      
6 Sep 1972       Philips joins Unidata consortium
Sep 1972   IPO of AMD    
Oct 1972 introduction of  S/370 125      
1972   release of C programming language on UNIX by Dennis Ritchie    
Nov 1972   foundation of Atari by Nolan Bushnell.
Nolan Bushnell sold the company to Warner in 1976. It was acquired by Jack Tramiel in 1986
Nov 1972   delivery of Honeywell 6180 at MIT    
Nov 1972 shipment of release 1 of VM/370       
1972   delivery of ILLIAC-IV ( 64 processors) at NASA Amesto be operational in 1975    
1972   introduction of Goodyear STARAN supercomputer    
Nov 1972   introduction of Honeywell 6180 (Multics)    
1972   introduction of Atari Pong game by Alan Bushnell    
1972   Texas Instruments introduces its first calculator Datamath    
Jan 1973 introduction of IBM 3740 Data Entry System code-named Viking      
Jan 1973   AMD installs a new fab...   ... at Penang, Malaysia
15 Jan 1973     first shipment of R2E Micral N to INRA  
Jan 1973   Alan Shugart leaves Memorex to found Shugart Associates    
15 Jan 1973     introduction of CII Iris 55, a downgraded Iris 60  
19 Jan 1973       agreement between CII and Siemens about exchanging assets in France and Germany
Feb 1973 introduction of S/370 168 MP      
Mar 1973 introduction of IBM 3340 discpack in Winchester technology, shipped in November 1973, designed by Kenneth Haughton      
Mar 1973 introduction of  S/370 115      
1973   introduction of Burroughs B-7700    
1973       NEC announces the NEC System 100 small business computer
1973       production of ES-1050 manufactured at Moscow and Penza
1973   introduction of 4K-bits DRAM by Texas Instruments    
1973       British scientists Clifford Cocks and James Ellis discover cryptographic public key mechanism
1973       University College of London -- U.K. and  Royal Radar Establishment --Norway join ArpaNet
Apr 1973     release of Siris 3 operating system for CII Iris 50 product line  
Apr 1973     divestiture of Honeywell-Bull Services to BNP  
Apr 1973   disclosure of Xerox Alto  workstation at PARC designed by  Butler W. Lampson, Robert W. Taylor, Charles P. Thacker    
Apr 1973 first shipment of IBM 370/158      
1973   Singer acquires Cogar Corporation, producing model 1500 intelligent terminal    
25 Apr 1973        introduction of ICL 2903 small business computer, code named PF73, designed by John Freer and including MICOS-1 1900 emulation engine
May 1973 first shipment of IBM 370/125      
May 1973   invention of Ethernet by Bob Metclaff at Xerox PARC    
May 1973 first shipment of IBM 370/168      
1973 introduction of IBM 3330 mod II disc storage      
1973   creation of Synertek    
1973   Honeywell decides to develop its large systems product line on "New Six thousands Architecture" rather than MULTICS architecture.    
1973   creation of PL/M by Gary Kildall    
1973   introduction of Burroughs B-1700    
1973   Intel's watch venture in Microma
terminated in 1978
1973     release of Prolog, a language developed in Marseille University (at Luminy) by Alain Colmerauer  
1973   development of CP/M operating system by Gary Kildall    
4 Jul 1973     creation of Unidata consortium announced at Amsterdam between CII, Siemens and Philips  
1973   publication of specifications of FTP File Transfer Protocol (Arpanet RFC454) by Jon Postel and Abhay Bhushan    
25 Jul 1973     Bertrand Asher sells his shares of CAP  to Sogeti  
Aug 1973 first shipment of IBM 370/195      
1973   creation of JPLDIS, an ancestor of dBase, by Jeb Long  at Jet Propulsion Laboratory    
Sep 1973   publication by Robert Kahn  and Vinson Cerf of specifications of TCP/IP    
17 Oct 1973   Martin Cooper from Motorola files a patent for cellular radiotelephone    
1973       operation of SWIFT (Society for the Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) network interconnecting banks, designed by Logica
Oct 1973   Lawrence Roberts (ex-ARPA) becomes CEO of Telenet    
19 Oct 1973 Judge Larson establishes that Eckert-Mauchly have derived ENIAC from Atanasoff works, denying Sperry's claims against Honeywell and Control Data of offending ENIAC's patents
Nov 1973   introduction by General Electric of Mark-III time-sharing system using Honeywell 6000 computers    
15 Jan 1974     introduction of CII Unidata 7740 (code-named X2) Unidata 7740 also announced by Siemens
8 Feb 1974     demonstration of Cyclades network by INRIA, based on CII Mitra 15 minicomputers  
Mar 1974 first shipment of 370/115      
Apr 1974   Introduction of Series 60 by Honeywell
H-6000 re-introduced as Level 66
New Honeywell-Bull P7 announced as Level 64
Honeywell-Bull GE-58 derivative announced as Level 61
new Honeywell-Bull Italy P6 announced as Level 62 NEC will announce later in 1974 its ACOS2, ACOS4 and ACOS6 series based on Honeywell licenses
Apr 1974 IBM ships VM/370 release 2      
1974   Codasyl release specs of Cobol-74    
1974     creation of Direction Générale des Postes et des Télécommunications (DGT) within  PTT French minister  
1974   contract for HARM anti-radar missile to Texas Instruments    
1974   SITA extends into Atlanta GA by establishing GABRIEL network    
1974       NEC announces its ACOS product line developed form Honeywell series 60 with Level 62 as ACOS2, Level 64 as ACOS4, Level 66 as ACOS6
1974       introduction by NEC of Japan first microprocessor
1974   introduction of Texas Instruments TMS-1000 microcontroller    
1974       creation of Korea Semiconductor (future Samsung)
Apr 1974   introduction of Intel 8080 2MHz microprocessor    
1974 introduction of SNA Systems Networks Architecture      
1974       full operation of Manchester University MU5 designed under Tom Kilburn, software under Derrick Morris
1974   Introduction of Data General Eclipse S/100     
1974   introduction of Motorola 6800 microprocessor, featuring 4000 transistors    
1974       death of Sergei Lebedev at 72
1974     announcement of Level 61/50 associating Level 61 to a Datapoint 2200 front-end processor  
5 Jun 1974     merge of CAP France into Cap-Sogeti under Serge Kampff  
Jun 1974 introduction of OS/MVS (as rel. 2 of OS/VS2)      
1974   introduction of Cray-1A by Cray Research    
1974   introduction of Motorola 6800    
1974 delivery of IBM 3838 array processor      
1974     Gérard Théry is named director of DGT of French PTT  
17 Jul 1974       acquisition of Telefunken by Siemens
1974   creation of Tandem Computers by Jim Treybig, producing non-stop computers,
to be bought by Compaq in 1982
1974     Roland Moreno files patent for smart-card  
1974   introduction of RCA 1802 CMOS  microprocessor chip    
1974   introduction of Bravo WYSIWIG word processor by Xerox PARC on Alto , designed by Butler Lampson and Charles Simonyi    
1974   introduction of Hewlett-Packard HP-3000 minicomputer    
1974       introduction of ES-1033 designed by A Gusev in Kazan
1974       introduction of a LCD watch by Seiko
1974   acquisition of Magnavox TV sets producer by Philips    
1974       production of ES-1022 by Rostovstev at Minsk
1974   Control Data terminates the production of 8600 and focus on Star    
1974       Cable & Wireless and Philippine interests form Eastern Telecommunications Philippine Inc. out of  Eastern Extension Australasia and China Telegraph Company (E.E.A. & C.) assets
18 Sep 1974       introduction of Siemens Unidata 7730 and  7750
9 Oct 1974       introduction of ICL New Range 2900 Series
Oct 1974     suppression of Délégation à l'Informatique.  
1974   Michael Stonebraker and Eugene Wong at UC Berkeley demonstrates Ingres  (interactive graphics and retrieval system)  relational data base on PDP 11/40 running Unix v5    
Oct 1974 introduction of IBM 3850 mass storage system, a library of helicoidally recorded tape      
Nov 1974       introduction of Fujitsu FACOM M-190 computer
Dec 1974   Alan Shugart quits Shugart Associates replaced by Don Massaro    
Dec 1974       delivery of ICL 1970 (code-named P3)

© Jean Bellec 2002

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